CWCT Publications
Use the list of publications below to view details of each. Tick whether you are a CWCT member, tick the publications you wish to buy and make a custom order form.

Use the list of publications below to view details of each.
 

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Date Publication Order Member Non
member
V.A.T

Standards
 
2006 Standard for systemised building envelopes (replaces all three earlier Standards) Details
£125 £250
Nil
2002 U-values and condensation (2nd Edition) Details
£50 £80
Nil
1999 Slope glazing - NOW OUT OF DATE Details
£75 £150
Nil
1998 Ventilated rainscreen walls - NOW OUT OF DATE Details
£75 £150
Nil
1996 Curtain walling - NOW OUT OF DATE/OUT OF PRINT Details
£75 £150
Nil
1994 Intrusion resistant windows - as PDF only Details
£20 £30
20%

Guides and Reports
 
2017 Guidance on built-up walls - as PDF only Details
£0 £80
20%
2011 Thermal assessment (2nd edition) Details
£0 £25
20%
2009 Automated façade control - as PDF Details
£0 £25
20%
2005 Design of facades for safety Details
£50 £100
Nil
2002 Nickel sulfide in glass Details
£40 £80
Nil
2002 FACETS - no longer available Details
£ £
Nil
2000 Automated windows - CD rom Details
£20 £20
20%
1999 Heat transfer through panels - as PDF only Details
£20 £40
20%
1999 Fixing of thin stone - as PDF only Details
£40 £80
20%
1997 Advanced glazings - as PDF only Details
£20 £40
20%
1997 Selection and testing of stone - as PDF only Details
£20 £40
20%
1996 Performance of gaskets - as PDF only Details
£10 £20
20%
1995 Thermally improved glazing frames - as PDF only Details
£10 £25
20%

Conferences
 
2007 Building envelope technology (ICBEST '07) Details
£70 £120
Nil
2005 Glass in buildings 2 Details
£60 £100
Nil
2003 Façade design and procurement Details
£50 £80
Nil
2001 Whole life perfomance Details
£50 £80
Nil
1999 Glass in buildings OUT OF PRINT Details
£50 £80
Nil
1997 Building envelope technology (ICBEST '97) OUT OF PRINT Details
£50 £75
Nil

Make your order form 



Please send your completed form with payment to:  CWCT, The Studio, Entry Hill, Bath, BA2 5LY

Cheques or sterling bankers drafts should be made payable to CWCT Services Ltd and drawn on a UK branch of your bank.
We can accept credit cards. Do not email credit card details - please call us on 01225 330945.   A VAT receipt will be dispatched by return.

BACS details:
Barclays Bank, 4-5 Southgate  Bath  BA1 1DN, UK
Account No: 20298506    Sort Code: 20-05-06
 

 

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Guidance on built-up walls 
 
Description 

Built-up walls are essentially layered construction, often formed from components and materials from a number of different suppliers and manufacturers, installed in a series of independent operations by different contractors. This differs from traditional cavity wall construction whereby the two skins of brickwork would be constructed by a single contractor, at the same time.  

Although they have been used for around 100 years or so, built-up or layered walls have only become commonplace in UK construction over the past 30 years driven by a number of factors such as the requirement for increased levels of insulation; the desire for lightweight and economic forms of construction; and the availability of new materials. When designed, coordinated and constructed correctly they can offer a number of advantages over traditional forms of construction, however if detailed incorrectly serious issues may occur leading to degradation of materials and premature failure of the wall. Built-up wall systems utilising rainscreens and rendered wall systems (i.e. EWIS - external wall insulation systems) tend to be more complicated to design, procure and construct than other forms of layered construction and are the main focus of this document. 

This guidance document gives advice on the specification, design, procurement, construction, use and maintenance of these forms of built-up wall system together with their materials and components. It is intended for use by all those involved in the above processes from client, building design team, building envelope designers, principal contractors, specialist building envelope contractors through to end users. 
 

Authors:
 
David Metcalfe
Stephen Ledbetter
Alan Keiller
 
Status: Guidance Published: 2017
ISBN: 978 1 874003 45 8 Pages: 274 Cost: CWCT members £FOC 
Non-members £80

 

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The thermal assessment of window assemblies, curtain walling and non-traditional building envelopes (Second edition) 
 
Description 

This document is intended for use by the building design team, building envelope designers and building inspectors. It allows the early estimation of building envelope U-values, details the information required and describes methods for showing compliance of the final building envelope design with the requirements of Parts L-2A and L-2B of the Building Regulations 2010. It is expected that similar provision will be included in the Building Regulations for Scotland and Northern Ireland in due course.

Advice is given on which calculation methods are relevant to different types of construction. These include:

  • Stick curtain walling
  • Unitised and panellised walls
  • Rainscreen wall
  • Insulated panel walls
  • Window assemblies
The appendices show how detailed calculations should be undertaken to establish component U-values and the properties of their associated thermal bridges, and how these should be incorporated into a detailed calculation of the equivalent U-value of a zone of the building envelope.

Finally, the document shows how the equivalent U-value of a zone of building envelope may be used as an input into software that models building energy use.
 


 
Authors:
 
David Metcalfe
Stephen Ledbetter
 
Status: Guidance Published: 2011
ISBN: 978 1 874003 40 3 Pages: 68 Cost: CWCT members £FOC as PDF from the Cladding Forum 
Non-members £30 as PDF

 

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Automated facade control  
 
Description 

This guide gives advice on the design, procurement, construction and operation of automated facades. It is intended for all those involved with automated facades including: clients, architects, M&E consultants, façade contractors, BMS contractors and suppliers.  

Facades are automated to control ventilation and shading. Automation can be used to optimise the shading performance through the seasons and allow it to distinguish between detrimental and beneficial solar gain. 

This guide describes the components that are used to construct automated facades and how the processes of design, procurement and construction differ from those for simpler facades. 
 

Authors:
 
David Metcalfe
Stephen Ledbetter
 
Status: Report Published: 2009
ISBN: Pages: 104 Cost: CWCT members £FOC 
Non-members £25
Contents

The design and construction of automated facades requires collaboration between many designers, suppliers and contractors. It is the Client’s role to ensure that appropriate designers are appointed and to develop an appropriate Client’s brief. Increasingly Clients are employing building physicists and façade consultants to assist in the consideration of different building strategies and the development of the Client brief. The Client should be clear about why the façade is being automated and how it will be integrated into other aspects of the building including the BMS and possibly the IT systems . 

The procurement process is equally important and has to recognise the need for early design inputs from suppliers and contractors. . 

Automated facades comprise windows, vents, shading devices, blinds and sensors in addition to the window or wall framing system. These will be supplied by different contractors or manufacturers and have to be selected to be compatible not only physically, in terms of geometry and force, but also electrically, in terms of cabling, power and signals. The compatibility of components and the interoperability of components and controls means that components cannot simply be substituted at a late stage in the construction process but construction of automated facades need be no more complex than that of simpler facades with exception of scheduling of the work and commissioning.  

 

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Standard for systemised building envelopes 
 
Description 

The CWCT Standard for systemised building envelopes was published on 1 March 2006. It is a registered document - each copy is numbered - and purchasers are automatically sent Technical updates by email as they are published.

The Standard covers all forms of systemised envelope construction and their integration into a complex envelope. It replaces the existing Standards for curtain walling, ventiliated rainscreens and slope glazing.

The new Standard is expanded to include:

  • Better specification of thermal and acoustic performance
  • Access and maintenance requirements
  • Interfaces
  • Brise soleil and other ancillary elements

There are also many changes from the old standards to incorporate amendments to the Building Regulations, the introduction of British European Standards and changes to British Standards.

The Standard is published in nine parts, together with a Standard for testing building envelopes, as follows:

  • Part 1 - Scope, terminology, testing and classification
  • Part 2 - Loads, fixings and movement
  • Part 3 - Air, water and wind resistance
  • Part 4 - Operable components, additional elements and means of access
  • Part 5 - Thermal, moisture and acoustic performance
  • Part 6 - Fire performance
  • Part 7 - Robustness, durability, tolerances and workmanship
  • Part 8 - Testing
  • Part 0 - Specifiers' checklist and certification

The Standard acts as a comprehensive guide to all aspect of performance that have be included in an envelope specification. It is part of the National Building Specification (NBS) and the basis for the envelope standards of the National House Building Council (NHBC). It helps Specifiers to:

  • Choose classes of performance appropriate to the UK climate when using European test methods
  • Comply with UK Building Regulations
  • Ensure appropriate communication between different designers and contractors
  • Set appropriate standards for finish and appearance.
Status: Standard Published: 2006 ISBN: 1 874003 20 3 Cost: CWCT members £125 
Non-members £250

 

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Design of facades for safe access maintenance and repair 
 
Description 

This document gives guidance on the assessment and control of risk for safe construction, maintenance and repair. 

It describes access methods and gives guidance on decision making and outlines the legal requirements and the duties of specific parties. 
 

Author:
 
CWCT Status: Guidance Published: 2005
ISBN: 1 874003 62 9 Pages: 120 Cost: CWCT members £50 
Non-members £100
Contents

Design guide: Assessment and control of risk, Design for safe construction and maintenance, Information transfer. Form of construction. Access methods. Case studies. Legal requirements.
 

 

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Glass in buildings 2 - Proceedings 
 
Description 

The proceedings of the International Conference 'Glass in buildings 2' held in Bath 2005.  The proceedings comprise thirty-six papers by leading international facade specialists.  

The papers cover all aspects of glass in facades including: materials, structures and building physics.
 

Editor: A Keiller
S Ledbetter
M Wilkinson
 
Status: Information Published: 2005
ISBN: 1 874003 35 1 Pages: 360 Cost: CWCT members £60 
Non-members £100
 
Contents
 
  • 'Zappi' structures and constructions in
  • 'blob' architecture
  • Managing energy use daylight and glare with dynamic faces in highly glazed buildings
  • Glass in the building construction: beyond the transparency
  • The case for ventilated facades - latest developments to prevent solar overheating of highly glazed buildings
  • Plate buckling of structural glass panels
  • Structural behaviour of glass surface structures under compression loads
  • Fundamentals for climate responsive envelopes
  • The intelligent building envelope - concept and qualifications
  • Resistance of glass in contact with different materials
  • Fracture mechanics modelling and time-dependent reliability of structural glass elements
  • Structural behaviour of broken laminated safety glass
  • Broken laminated glass has a risk of falling down
  • Assessing the risks of using glazing at height
  • Suggestions for simplified redesign of a façade detail using TRIZ
  • Systems analysis of smart facades
  • Optimising intelligent facades using a genetic algorithm
  • Numerical and experimental investigations for point fixing of glass under in-plane loads
  • Glued joints in glass structures
  • Optimising connections in structural glass
  • Structural glass and façade engineering for the BBC Broadcasting House, London
  • Construction of all-glass structures with external glass frames
  • Acoustical performances of ventilated double glass facades
  • Double facades at high latitudes - some user experiences
  • Energy assessment of a double-skin glazed façade
  • Façade and building physics design of the EMPA office Zurich
  • Structural design of large glass doors
  • Glass canopy for the office centre of the DZ Bank in Berlin
  • Four seasons centre for the performing arts Toronto Glass staircase
  • Glass in buildings as a crime prevention strategy
  • International standards for blast resistant glazing
  • Bomb blast enhancements to the glazed facades
  • Glass façade elements with internal fluid flow
  • Modeling the thermal performance of advanced glazing systems in office buildings
  • Glass façade elements with internal fluid flow
  • Will the new Part L2 impose architectural restrictions for facades of modern offices to minimise energy consumption and maximise comfort?
  • Development of a reliable high-strength glass connection for an all-glass bridge
  • Plantation Place: an exemplar of the versatility of glass in 21st century architecture
  • Design and testing of pre-tensioned rod trusses
  • Employing the glazing for the stabilization of building envelopes

 

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Facade design and procurement - Proceedings
 
Description 

The proceedings of the International Conference 'Facade design and procurement' held in Bath 2003.  The proceedings comprise tenty three papers by leading facade specialists. 

The papers cover all aspects design and procurement of building envelopes.
 

Editor: A Gibb
A Keiller
S Ledbetter
Status: Information Published: 2003
ISBN: 1 874003 15 7 Pages: 256 Cost: CWCT members £50 
Non-members £80
Contents
 
  • Linking manufacturing to design 
  • Procuring glass for buildings 
  • The importance of record keeping in faç:ade design and material selection 
  • NATFAC: a simple tool for the comparison of options for a double skin faç:ade 
  • Pressurisation as a simple means of reducing both capital and whole life building costs 
  • Education for the undergraduate student 
  • Creating tomorrow’s facade engineers 
  • Environmental faç:ade design tool 
  • From single to double skin facades 
  • Procurement and design of faç:ade work for existing buildings 
  • Integrated systems 
  • The design of facades to new Lloyds TSB HQ, London 
 
  • Procurement and design of faç:ade work for existing buildings 
  • Integrated systems 
  • The design of facades to new Lloyds TSB HQ, London 
  • Issues in design for whole life performance 
  • Achieving an airtight building 
  • Developing the industry's knowledge and understanding of the threat from chemical biological weapons 
  • Aluminium thermal barrier facades 
  • Thermal Transmittance (U-value) Assessment of Glazing Frame 
  • Specifying glass 
  • Communicating down the cladding supply chain 
 
  • Leaking buildings - an industry in denial 
  • The application of standards in assessing faç:ade materials and quality 
  • Maintainability of facades in the tropics 
  • Cleaner design in facades 
  • Analysis of the faç:ade engineering in Japan 
  • Glass and metal facades - the Singapore chapter 
  • Managing cladding interfaces within the building faç:ade 
  • The design and installation of glass flooring and fire-rated glass flooring 
  • Polymer composites - back to the future 
  • Development of an enhanced core material for composite cladding panels

 

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Glass in buildings: Breakage - the influence of nickel sulfide
 
Description 

This report looks at the use of toughened glass in buildings and the effects of nickel sulfide on the risk of glass failure. 

It covers the risk of failure of toughened glass, the process of heat soaking and the appropriate use of glass.  This includes assessment of risk and specification. 

The report also gives advice on the diagnosis of glass failures and appropriate remedial action for buildings where the risk of glass failure is unacceptably high. 
 

Author:
 
Committee Status: Guidance Published: 2002
ISBN: 1 874003 27 0 Pages: 56 Cost: CWCT members £40 
Non-members £80
 
Contents

Glass types for architectural use, nickel sulfide inclusions, heat soak toughene glass, selecting toughened glass, specification, diagnosis and remedial action.
 

 

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FACETS
 
Description 

FACETS(Fenestration and Cladding Engineering Technology Scheme) comprises fourteen technology packages divided into 106 Sections with over 400 illustrations. It may be read as a book or used as a reference source.  

It brings state of the art information to companies in the window and cladding industry. It will also be of value to construction companies and building designers. 

There is a limited version of FACETS provided on line as a free demonstration here.  A full version of FACETS is available on CD-ROM by using the order form. 
 

Author: CWCT
 
Status: Information Published: 2001
ISBN: Pages: Cost: CWCT members £150 + V.A.T
Non-members £250 + V.A.T
Contents
 
01 Envelope sealing  
02 Rainscreens  
03 Buildability  
04 Structural systems  
05 Thermal properties  
 
06 Building comfort  
07 Lighting  
08 Glass and Glazing  
09 Advanced glazings  
10 Structural glazing 
11 Stone cladding  
12 Finishes and corrosion  
13 Durability  
14 Procurement

 

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Thermal performance and condensation risk (Second edition) 
 
Description 

This is a series of four volumes. Two volumes deal with thermal transmission and temperatures within curtain walling; two further volumes consider the assessment of condensation risk in curtain walls. The four volumes are: 

Standard for specifying and assessing for heat transfer (the U-value) 
Guide to good practice for assessing glazing frame U-values 
Standard for specifying and assessing for condensation risk 
Guide to good practice for assessing heat transfer and condensation risk for a curtain wall 
These documents set out the rules for performing thermal analysis of glazing frames and take the reader through worked examples of U-value and condensation risk analysis. 

Compliance with the guidance given in these documents will ensure that full account is taken of thermal breaks, cold bridges and lateral heat transfer within the wall. Earlier simpler methods of analysis are not capable of representing the true behaviour of walls with complex geometry.  
 

Author: Committee
 
Status: Standard Published: 1998
ISBN: 1 874003 47 5
1 874003 37 8
1 874003 42 4
1 874003 32 7
 
Pages: 16/16/20/20 Cost:
(Sold as a set)
CWCT members £50 
Non-members £80
Contents

Standard for specifying and assessing for heat transfer (the U-value) 
Factors affecting heat transfer, Methods of assessment, Specifying interpreting and using the results of U-value assessment.  

Guide to good practice for assessing glazing frame U-values 
Basic assessment, Ordinary glazing, Low emissivity glazing, DIN standards, U-value assessment procedures. 

Standard for specifying and assessing for condensation risk 
Water vapour, Temperature variation, Assessment of condensation risk,  Surface condensation, Interstitial condensation, Risk of damage. 

Guide to good practice for assessing heat transfer and condensation risk for a curtain wall 
Specification, Planning assessments, Mullion-with-glazing-unit, Transom, Overall U-value of a curtain wall, Condensation risk.

 

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The Whole-life performance of facades - Proceedings 
 
Description 

The proceedings of the National Conference 'Whole-life performance of facades' held in Bath 2001.  The proceedings comprise tenty three papers by leading facade specialists.  

The papers cover all aspects of glass in facades including: Materials, Structures and, Building physics
.
 

Editor: A Keiller
S Ledbetter
 
Status: Information Published: 2001
ISBN: 1 874003 91 2 Pages: 208 Cost: CWCT members £50 
Non-members £80
Contents
 
  • Whole life costs - Setting the Scene The whole life cost forum Contingencies against repair - Auditing for durability 
  • Designing for maintenance and repair 
  • Planned maintenance and refurbishment - Options-based evaluation of  façade refurbishment alternatives 
  • The cleaning and maintenance factor
  • Planned inspection and maintenance 

  •  
 
  • Life cycle analysis of aluminium clad windows, 
  • Monitoring of advanced facades and environmental systems 
  • Energy rating systems 
  • Durability of finishes 
  • The durability of natural stone facades 
  • Durability of glazing and glazing units 
  • Verifying the thermal performance of facades 
  • Future of interactive facades 
  • To seal or not to seal 
  • Sealants - their impact on cost 
  • Anodized aluminium for facades 
  • Titanium - The Architectural Metal of Choice for the 21st Century 
  • Facades for housing with increased thermal performance 
  • Modelling the thermal Performance of Glazed Facades 
  • Performance comparison of two different curtain wall systems and thermal comfort 
  • Whole-life performance - will it really happen?

 

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IBC automated window project 
 
Description

This report is the outcome of a project to develop an automated window that can be used to control ventilation and lighting in a room in response to both occupant demands and energy concerns.  In addition the window can be integrated with other appliances within a building as part of an overall control strategy. 

The report describes the integration issues encountered when currently available window control technologies with various standard building control technologies are brought together.  Solutions used to produce a functional window are given. 

This report serves as a guide to anyone wishing to develop or adapt automated facade components. 
 

Author:
 
M Skelly Status: Guidance Published: 2000
ISBN: Pages: Cost: CWCT members £20 + V.A.T
Non-members £20 + V.A.T
 
Contents
 
An initial review of the issues related to the use of automated devices to control internal environments identified that the interaction between an individual occupant and an automated window can be fundamental to the attainment of user comfort.  As a result, the project concludes that although the current state of the art of facade component control is adequate there is, in the future, a need to develop intelligent control techniques to provide a control system with a certain degree of flexibility so that it may adapt to specific locations and occupants. 

 The CD-ROM covers, Hardware, Integration, Window control systems, Human response to ventilation, Human response to shading devices, Human response to automated windows
 

 

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CLADDING BUILDABILITY 
CLADD:iss
 
Description

These two interactive CD's contain a wealth of information on cladding construction and cladding interfaces. 

Cladding buildability is a guide to tolerance and fit of cladding onto structural frames including a method of assessment of the risk of lack of fit.  It was written by Taylor Woodrow and CWCT. 

The Cladding Interface Standardisation Strategy (CLADD:iss) gives examples of the many different forms of building envelope and cladding components.  It was witten by Loughborough University.

 

Author:
 
CWCT Status: Information Published: 2000
ISBN: Pages: Cost: CWCT members £20 + V.A.T
Non-members £25 + V.A.T
 
Contents
 
Cladding buildability 
A guide to toleance and fit of cladding onto structural frames including a method of assessment of the risk of lack of fit.  Examples of problems experienced with the erection of cladding are given.   Software enables the user to calculate the probable risk of lack of fit between the cladding panels and their support points on the structure.  The software was designed for a unitised cladding system and could be adapted to cope with other cladding types. 

The CD contains guidance to help reduce the risk that cladding cannot be erected, right first time, for reasons of inaccuracy, error and poor design or other causes of lack of adjustment.  It covers both frame and cladding, design and construction.  

CLADD:iss 
The Cladding Interface Standardisation Strategy (CLADD:iss) gives examples of the many different forms of building envelope and cladding components.  For each there are examples of construction, tolerance and appropriate standards. 

CLADD:iss  focuses on interfaces and shows the principles and practice of designing and constructing interfaces in the building envelope.  The CD is fully interactive with the ability to view many combinations of cladding and interface in a split screen mode. 

CLADD:iss has been prepared by the Department of Civil and Building Engineering at Loughborough University. 
 

 

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Standard and Guide to Good Practice for Slope Glazing systems 
 
Description 

This Standard comprises three volumes: 

Standard for slope glazing systems 
Test methods for facades: Slope glazing systems 
Guide to good practice for facades
Standard for slope glazing systems sets out a framework for the specification of a slope glazing system, establishes specific requirements for its performance and defines the tests by which compliance with particular aspects of these requirements may be demonstrated. 

Test methods for facades: Slope glazing systems identifies two new tests - a test for the watertightness of unsealed slope glazing systems using static pressure with a wind generator, and a test for site testing of the watertightness of slope glazing systems using a spray bar. 

'Guide to Good Practice for Facades' gives advice on the choice of materials, components and finishes, as well as quality assurance, fabrication, transportation, storage and installation and maintenance. 
 

Author:
 
Committee Status: Standard Published: 1999
ISBN: 1 874003 56 4 Pages: 96/24/44 Cost:
(Sold as a set)
CWCT members £75
Non-members £150
 
Contents

Standard for slope glazing systems 
Slope glazing system types, Performance in use, Terminology, Support structure and fixings, Glazing selection,  Wind Loads;  Dead load and live loads,  Accommodation of movement, Noise generation, Air permeability, Water penetration resistance, Load resistance, Thermal properties, Condensation, Acoustic properties, Fire performance, Access for cleaning and maintenance, Appearance, fit and position, Durability, Performance testing of specimens, Specifiers' checklist. 

Test methods for facades: Slope glazing systems 
Standard test apparatus, Test chamber, Calibration, Test specimen, Standard test methods. 

Guide to good practice for facades
Materials and components, Finishes, Quality, Fabrication, Handling and storage, Installation, Maintenance.

 

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The effect of edge details on heat transfer through insulated panels 
 
Description 

This report looks at the additional heat loss that occurs at the edge of insulated panels due to lateral heat flow in the panel skin..  

The report describes the findings of a project to assess the influence of edge details on the thermal performance of insulated panels as typically used in stick system curtain walling. It illustrates the problem as it currently exists, through a combination of measurement and computer simulation, and identifies good practice for the design of insulated panels in stick-system curtain walls. 

The report shows good and bad practice and details of calculating accurate U-values for panels in curtain walls. 
 

Author:
 
R Harris Status: Guidance Published: 1999
ISBN: 1 874003 86 6 Pages: 59 Cost: CWCT members £60 
Non-members £80
Contents

One-dimensional heat transfer assessment, Two-dimensional heat transfer assessment, Calculation of two-dimensional heat transfer, Simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer, Three-dimensional heat transfer assessment, Calculation of three-dimensional heat transfer, Simulation of three-dimensional heat transfer, Measurement Of Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer, Interactions with the framing system, Performance of typical panels, comparison of simulation and measurement, designing panels, panel construction.

 

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Performance and testing of fixings for thin stone cladding 
 
Description 

This report is concerned with the fixing of natural stone cladding units as part of a curtain wall or rainscreen.  Developments in the cutting and handling of stone mean that natural stone can now be cut, depending on the stone type and quality, to thickness as low as 20 mm.  This has a number of implications for the fixing of natural stone units, which make them different from the more traditional use of stone at thickness of 40-75 mm.   

Stone cladding units are subject to temperature and moisture movement.  Thinner stone units have less thermal mass and undergo greater thermal movement.Thin stone units are more likely to be saturated through their thickness and undergo greater moisture movement. 

This report details the loads and movements on stone cladding, describes the different methods of fixing stone cladding units and methods of test to ensure their satisfactory performance. 

 

Author: A Keiller
S Ledbetter
 
Status: Guidance Published: 1999
ISBN: 1 874003 10 6 Pages: 107 Cost: CWCT members £40 
Non-members £80
Contents

Support systems for stone cladding panels, load transfer, wall construction and design, Loads, Movement, accommodation of movement, sub-frame movement, Building and cladding tolerances, Fixing types, support fixings, connection to stone panels, Fixing performance, Failure modes of the stone, Failure modes of the fixing, Structural design, Testing of large specimens, Glossary. 

 

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Glass in buildings - Proceedings
 

OUT OF PRINT BUT AVAILABLE ELECTRONICALLY AT www.cladding.org
 

Description 

The proceedings of the International Conference 'Facade design and procurement' held in Bath 2003.  The proceedings comprise tenty three papers by leading facade specialists. 

The papers cover all aspects design and procurement of building envelopes.
 

Editor: S Ledbetter
R Harris
 
Status: Information Published: 1999
ISBN: 1 874003 81 5 Pages: 280 Cost: CWCT members £50 
Non-members £80
Contents
 
  • A history of using glass in buildings and some thoughts about the future 
  • Structural glass and wind bracing structures - a new symbiosis 
  • Zappi and the quest for frameless glass structures for architecture 
  • Glass: the new structural engineering material 
  • BIPV Exhibition Pavilion - multi-functional use of glass 
  • Design for manufacture an example based on the Korean World Trade Centre 
  • The material and the ephemeral 
  • Glass cable-net entrance pavilion for GM global headquarters 
  • Hashalom suburban railway station, Tel Aviv - Glazed roof design 
  • Glass Visual defects and deformations 
  • The Enigmatic facade:  glass as a translucent design element 
  • Elegance in structural  glazing 
  • New developments in glass decoration 

 
  • The future of glass in buildings - an overview of advanced glazing technology 
  • The link between glazing and climate change 
  • Integrating spheres transmittance measurements on hollow glass blocks for building applications 
  • Daylight design for tropical facades 
  • Sundirecting glazing - a new development in daylighting for deep plan offices 
  • Design for noise transmission attenuation with glass and laminates 
  • Advanced acoustic glazing - the latest developments in sound and vision 
  • Enhancement of building design through fire resistant glazings 
  • Review of Window Energy Rating Systems and outline of a possible system for the UK 
  • Energy performance of curtain wall systems on high-tech office towers in Istanbul 
  • Variable shading co-efficients 
  • Establishing the value of advanced glazings 
  • Vacuum glazing:  design options and performance capability 
  • Fundamentals and design possibilities of building integrated photovoltaic facades 

 

  • The damage potential to cladding and glazing caused by flying debris in windstorms 
  • Bearing technology in glass 
  • Modern glazing in the refurbishment of the Royal Opera House 
  • Managing the interface between building and glass tension structures 
  • Barrier: to be or not to be 
  • Standardised interfaces for glass cladding systems 
  • Design of glazed trusses by buckling analysis 
  • The shape of things to come - mechanical connectors for glass in frameless glazed structures 
  • Bolted structural glass assemblies: Articulated bolts - more glass, less steel 
  • Quick design methods for glass adhesive beams in practice 
  • Structural performance of laminated building glass 
  • Overhead Glazing - a Designer's Checklist 
  • European Blast Resistant Glazing Standards - the shock tube and range tests compared 
  • Failure prediction - what is the true strength of glass?

 

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Standard and Guide to Good Practice for Walls with Ventilated Rainscreens 
 
Description 

This Standard comprises three volumes: 

Standard for Walls with Ventilated Rainscreens
Standard for Testing of Ventilated Rainscreens (draft for development)
Test Methods for Ventilated Rainscreens (draft for development)
Guide to good practice for facades
The aim of these documents is to assist those who specify, design, manufacture or install rainscreen facades.  They set performance criteria in a rational framework and provide a means for the consistent specification of rainscreen performance. 

Standard for Walls with Ventilated Rainscreens sets out a framework for the specification of a rainscreen and establishes specific requirements for its performance. 

Standard for Testing of Ventilated Rainscreens (draft for development) gives advice on the range of tests that are available to test the performance of the rainscreen wall.  The applicability of each test is described individually, giving the specifier the option to choose the relevant tests and appropriate size of test specimens. 

'Guide to Good Practice for Facades' gives advice on the choice of materials, components and finishes, as well as quality assurance, fabrication, transportation, storage and installation and maintenance. 
 

Author:
 
Committee Status: Standard Published: 1998
ISBN: 1 874003 51 3 Pages: 56/20/24/44 Cost:
(Sold as a set)
CWCT members £75
Non-members £150
 
Contents

Standard for walls with ventilated rainscreens 
Principal features of rainscreens, Terminology, Fixings, Fasteners, Wind loads, Cyclic loadin,; Dead load and live load, Accommodation of movement, Air permeability,  Cavity ventilation, Water penetration resistance, Thermal performance, Condensatio, Noise, Acoustic properties, Fire performance, Electrical continuity and earth bonding, Corrosion, Infestation, Specifiers checklist. 

Standard for testing of ventilated rainscreens
Scope of Testing, Specimen size and features, Air permeability tests,  Weathertightness tests, Wind loading, Fatigue loading, Testing of fixings. 

Test methods for ventilated rainscreens
Test specimen, Test apparatus, Calibration, Test methods. 

Guide to good practice for facades 
Materials and components, Finishes, Quality, Fabrication, Handling and storage, Installation, Maintenance.

 

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Use of advanced glazings 
 
Description 

This report looks at the advanced glazings available and the potential for their use in different countries and climates.  

The report is based a number of discussions held with potential users, manufacturers and researchers involved in the development of advanced glazing technologies in several countries, including the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, Canada and the USA. The results of these discussions are presented along with a literature review and descriptions of the different advanced glazings. 

Glazings discussed include: Uncoated glasses, Coatings and films, Multiple-sheet glazings, TIMs, Directional glazings, Variable (chromogenic) glasses, Edge and frame details.  Competing technologies include: Photovoltaics, Light-pipes and shelves, Shutters, Blinds and Curtains. 
 

Author:
 
R Harris
S Ledbetter
 
Status: Guidance Published: 1997
ISBN: 1 874003 08 4 Pages: 113 Cost: CWCT members £60 
Non-members £80
Contents

Review of advanced glazings and technical performance criteria: 
Light and heat; Solar radiation; Air infiltration; Heat transfer; Light/infra-red/heat transfer; Performance Testing, Types of advanced glazings, Cost, Comfort, Design, Installation, Durability, Competing technologies. 

UK issues affecting the uptake of advanced glazing technologies: 
Domestic building, Commercial building, Public building, Light and climate. 

World-wide issues affecting the uptake of advanced glazing technologies: 
Climate, USA, Japan, Australia. 

 

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Guide to the selection and testing of stone panels for external use 
 
Description 

This guide addresses the issues construction professionals are faced with when considering natural stone as an external cladding material. Specific guidance has been developed including a series of preliminary and production tests to ensure that the selected stone meets the required aesthetic, durability and strength requirements. 

The guide deals with stone panels that are thin in relation to their height and width.  It is particularly relevant if the durability of the stone is questionable because of adverse environmental conditions or lack of available data.  The guide does not cover the use of ultra thin stones incorporated in composite panels. 
 

Author:
 
Committee Status: Guidance Published: 1997
ISBN: 1 874003 09 2 Pages: 56 Cost: CWCT members £40 
Non-members £80
Contents

Stone selection, Lead times for stone selection, Selection process, Durability of stone, Testing for durability, Stregth of thin stone, Types of strength test, Dimensional stability, Testing methodology, Performance criteria, Preliminary tests, Panel tests, Production tests.

 

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ICBEST '97 - Proceedings 
 

Description 

The proceedings of the International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technolog held in Bath 1997.  The proceedings comprise seventy papers by leading international facade specialists. 

The papers cover all aspects of facades including: Materials, Structures, Building physics, sealing, durability and constuction process. 

ICBEST is the leading international conference in this field.
 

Editor: S Ledbetter
R Harris
 
Status: Information Published: 1997
ISBN: 1 874003 31 9 Pages: 480 Cost: CWCT members £50 
Non-members £75
 
Contents
 
  • The wall of the future 
  • The challenge of 'green' buildings in Asia 
  • Wind performance evaluation procedures for roofing systems - current status and future trends. 
  • DTI programme activities in building integrated photovoltaics - opportunities and challenges. 
  • Detailing for an intolerant industry - Gosford Hospital case study. 
  • Probing the design pattern of the Chinese comfortably-off villa residence in 2000. 
  • Essential elements of bolted structural glass systems. 
  • The engineering of composite glass beams. 
  • Performance of architectural glass in a mid-rise curtain wall system under simulated earthquake conditions. 
  • Spontaneous fracture of glass due to nickel sulphide inclusions - Risk management and development of a non-destructive testing system. 
  • Trafficable glass roofs. 
  • The design of building facades for blast resistance. 
  • Blast resistant GFRP cladding panels. 
  • A report on the damages of metal curtain walls, doors and windows by the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. 
  • Modelling concrete anchors in the analysis of steel sub-frames in the re-cladding of buildings. 
  • Impact resistance of plain laterized concrete. 
  • DA report on the damages of precast concrete curtain walls by the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. 
  • Management of the cladding/services interface: a case study. 
  • Facade procurement - the role of the facade consultant. 
  • Failure mode and effects analysis in the cladding industry. 
  • JA study on the cladding system from the viewpoint of 'Yakumono'. 

 
 

 

  • Structural silicone glazing design, application and maintenance. 
  • Optimising sealant performance through finite element analysis. 
  • Structural strengthening with external plate bonding. 
  • Sealant joints in cladding - obtaining good adhesion. 
  • Sealed joints : achieving satisfactory long-term performance. (Abstract only) 
  • Effect of cladding panel movement on the performance of newly-sealed joints. 
  • Evolution of curtain wall design against water infiltration. 
  • The evolution in joint sealing. 
  • Effects of weatherproofing sealants on building aesthetics. 
  • Prestressed Ketton stone perimeter frame: The Queen's Building, Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
  • Durability of stone for construction. 
  • Undercut anchor technology for attachment of natural stone, ceramic and high pressure laminates in the facade
  • Optimum design of composite cladding panels. 
  • Solid aluminium panels for exterior wall cladding. 
  • Wall features - great and small. 
  • Towards whole life costing of facades. 
  • Durability of the facade. 
  • The corrosion of masonry clad steel framed buildings constructed up to the late 1930s. 
  • he benefits of testing cladding for weathertightness. 
  • Methodology for establishing the water penetration testing criteria. 
  • Environmental monitoring of an overcladding system. 
  • To develop a European standard watertightness dynamic test for curtain walling. 
  • Simplified loop analysis for naturally ventilated buildings. 
  • 'Das Düsseldorfer Stadttor'; Exercising an integrated approach to double facade planning. 
  • Double skin glass facades - Investigations into the load sharing possibilities. 

 

 

  • TVariable solar control glazing. (Abstract only) 
  • Thermal properties of evacuated glazing based on experimental solar simulation and computer-based simulation modelling. 
  • Advances in transparent insulation technology. 
  • The lighting and perception of multi-layer translucent skins. (Abstract only) 
  • ETFE foil cushions as an alternative to glass for atriums and rooflights. 
  • The Architecturally integrated photovoltaic facade at Northumberland Building, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne. 
  • Integrated non-imaging concentrator photovoltaic building facades. 
  • Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system. 
  • Optical and radiative characterisation for relevant application of several commercially available low E coated glasses from the European market place. 
  • The development of a thermally improved system - System 1.0 
  • Point thermal bridges in ventilated curtain walls - Measurements and numerical calculations. 
  • The new IFI aerocoustic wind tunnel - a tool for building acoustic investigation. 
  • Bringing colour to inner city life 
  • Hygro-thermic behaviour of earth-bricks masonries. 
  • Experimental analysis of the hygrometric behaviour of plasters - the role of stratification. 
  • Use of an environmental chamber to investigate large-scale envelope specimen hygrothermal performance. 
  • Field testing of filled-cavity wall systems. 
  • Hygrothermal load on composite-facade performance. 
  • Case studies on external wall insulation systems faced with thin render. 
  • The use of bentonite in residential rooms as a hygrometric retarder. 
  • The deformation and wind safety of metal facades 
  • Unsteady pressure gradients and their implications for pressure-equalised rainscreens. 
  • Velocity and impact direction of wind-driven rain on building faces.
 

 

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Standard and Guide to Good Practice for Curtain Walling 
 
Description 

Now the de facto U.K. Standard, part of the National Building Specification in the U.K. and used in over thirty other countries. The second edition of this Standard comprises three volumes: 

Standard for Curtain Walling 
Guide to Good Practice for Facades 
Test Methods for Curtain Walling 
The aim of these documents is to assist those who specify, design, manufacture or install curtain walling. They set performance criteria in a rational framework and provide a means for the consistent specification of curtain wall performance. 

'Standard for Curtain Walling' sets out a framework for the specification of a curtain wall, establishes specific requirements for its performance and defines the tests by which compliance with particular aspects of these requirements may be demonstrated. 

'Guide to Good Practice for Facades' gives advice on the choice of materials, components and finishes, as well as quality assurance, fabrication, transportation, storage and installation and maintenance.
 

Author:
 
Committee Status: Standard Published: 1996
ISBN: 1 874003 12 2
1 874003 14 9
1 874003 13 0
 
Pages: 56/32/44 Cost: CWCT members £75
Non-members £150
 
Contents
 
 Standard for curtain walling: 
Introduction to curtain walling, Performance criteria,duction, Wind loads, Dead loads, Accommodation of movement, Noise, Air permeability, Water penetration resistanc, Wind resistance, Thermal properties, Condensation, Acoustic properties, Fire performance, Electrical continuity & earth bonding, Opening lights, Appearance, fit & position, Durability, Testing, Specifiers' checklist. 

Guide to good practice for facades: 
Materials and components, Finishes, Quality, Fabrication, Handling and storage, Installation, Maintenance. 

Test methods for curtain walling: 
Test apparatus, Calibration, Test specimen, Test methods
 

 

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The performance of gaskets in window and cladding systems - a state of the art review - as PDF only 
 
Description 

This report remains the most authorative single document on glazing gaskets.  It covers all of the common gasket materials and all of the different gasket types. 

The report is a review of current issues and technology relating to the design and performance of gaskets in window and cladding systems. It is based on a review all aspects of gasket performance and use, including formal interviews and informal discussions with gasket producers and users. It includes a survey of existing literature and the results of a simple experimental study in to the mechanical behaviour of some typical gaskets.  

This report is relevant to anyone involved in the design and specification of joints and gaskets. 
 

Author:
 
R Harris Status: Information Published: 1996
ISBN: 1 874003 07 6 Pages: 110 Cost: CWCT members £25 
Non-members £50
Contents

Glossary, Joints and the physics of fluid flow, Properties of gasket materials, Properties of gaskets, Manufacture, Installation and replacement, Joint and gasket design, Performance requirements.

 

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Guide to the design of thermally improved glazing frames 
 
Description 

This guide presents the factors affecting U-values and condensation risk associated with different framing systems and glazing solutions.  It allows comparison of different framing materials including composite frames and shows the effect of different frame/glazing combinations. 

The guide is based on over 160 analyses showing temperature distribution within each frame, heat flow and U-value. 

The guide will be of use to anyone designing, or seeking to improve, profiles for use in glazing frames including curtain walling.
 

Author:
 
R Harris Status: Information Published: 1998
ISBN: 1 874003 16 5 Pages: 198 Cost: CWCT members £75 
Non-members £100
Contents

Performance of glazing frames, Assessing heat transfer, Heat transfer and simulation methods, Frame type, Frame size, Glazing type, Window sills, Aluminium frames, Timber and timber/aluminium composite frames, PVC-U and PVC-U/aluminium frames, Steel frames, Warm edge technology, Curtain walling.

 

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Windows with enhanced resistance to intrusion
 
Description 

This Standard is written in two parts. The first three sections comprise a standard for the performance and testing of glazing frames. The remaining five sections are a guide to good practice and make recommendations for design, glazing, selection fabrication and installation.  

The tests presented in the standard are intended to load windows in ways representative of the more common forms of manual attack. As such they allow reproducible and repeatable tests as a means of comparing the resistance of windows to intrusion. 

This remains the only standard that can be applied univesally to any style of window. The test forces are more realistic than those given in BS7950.  
 

Author: Committee
 
Status: Standard Published: 1994
ISBN: 1 874003 06 8 Pages: 51 Cost: CWCT members £30 
Non-members £30
 
Contents

Standard:
Methods of entry, Frame performance criteria, Significant openings, Secured and unsecured lights, Entry by manipulation, Glass removal, Levering of opening lights, Levering of fixed lights, Entry by impact, Testing, Test methods. 

Guide to good practice: 
Design, Glazing performance, Frame and glass selection,  Fabrication, Installation.